No, clearly they aren’t, one is Aperol and the other is Campari. They are different proofs, flavored with different ingredients, and they were created by different people. However, they are both red, bitter liqueurs from Northern Italy that you mix with soda or as a spritz, as an aperitivo before dinner. That and they are both currently owned and produced by the same company.
So, to amend that, yeah sure, they are the same thing.
They are very broadly, both a member of the bitter liqueurs family, arguably an amaro (amari is more of a digestivo), more specifically a “red bitter” aperitivo (before dinner) liqueur of which there are dozens.
I don’t know exactly what people wanted to know when they googled “Are Campari and Aperol the same thing?” But to answer that with another question:
“Is a Shih Tzu and a Pekingnese the same thing?”
No, those are two different dog breeds.
Yes, they are both ancient Chinese dog breeds, loyal and lovable, and they are as delightful as they are fluffy.